geohash算法原理及实现方式

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1、geohash特点

2、geohash原理

3、geohash的php实现代码

geohash有以下几个特点:

首先,geohash用一个字符串表示经度和纬度两个坐标。某些情况下无法在两列上同时应用索引 (例如MySQL 4之前的版本,Google App Engine的数据层等),利用geohash,只需在一列上应用索引即可。

其次,geohash表示的并不是一个点,而是一个矩形区域。比如编码wx4g0ec19,它表示的是一个矩形区域。 使用者可以发布地址编码,既能表明自己位于北海公园附近,又不至于暴露自己的精确坐标,有助于隐私保护。

第三,编码的前缀可以表示更大的区域。例如wx4g0ec1,它的前缀wx4g0e表示包含编码wx4g0ec1在内的更大范围。 这个特性可以用于附近地点搜索。首先根据用户当前坐标计算geohash(例如wx4g0ec1)然后取其前缀进行查询 (SELECT * FROM place WHERE geohash LIKE 'wx4g0e%'),即可查询附近的所有地点。

Geohash比直接用经纬度的高效很多。

Geohash的原理

Geohash的最简单的解释就是:将一个经纬度信息,转换成一个可以排序,可以比较的字符串编码
首先将纬度范围(-90, 90)平分成两个区间(-90,0)、(0, 90),如果目标纬度位于前一个区间,则编码为0,否则编码为1。

由于39.92324属于(0, 90),所以取编码为1。

然后再将(0, 90)分成 (0, 45), (45, 90)两个区间,而39.92324位于(0, 45),所以编码为0。

以此类推,直到精度符合要求为止,得到纬度编码为1011 1000 1100 0111 1001。

纬度范围 划分区间0 划分区间1 39.92324所属区间
(-90, 90) (-90, 0.0) (0.0, 90) 1
(0.0, 90) (0.0, 45.0) (45.0, 90) 0
(0.0, 45.0) (0.0, 22.5) (22.5, 45.0) 1
(22.5, 45.0) (22.5, 33.75) (33.75, 45.0) 1
(33.75, 45.0) (33.75, 39.375) (39.375, 45.0) 1
(39.375, 45.0) (39.375, 42.1875) (42.1875, 45.0) 0
(39.375, 42.1875) (39.375, 40.7812) (40.7812, 42.1875) 0
(39.375, 40.7812) (39.375, 40.0781) (40.0781, 40.7812) 0
(39.375, 40.0781) (39.375, 39.7265) (39.7265, 40.0781) 1
(39.7265, 40.0781) (39.7265, 39.9023) (39.9023, 40.0781) 1
(39.9023, 40.0781) (39.9023, 39.9902) (39.9902, 40.0781) 0
(39.9023, 39.9902) (39.9023, 39.9462) (39.9462, 39.9902) 0
(39.9023, 39.9462) (39.9023, 39.9243) (39.9243, 39.9462) 0
(39.9023, 39.9243) (39.9023, 39.9133) (39.9133, 39.9243) 1
(39.9133, 39.9243) (39.9133, 39.9188) (39.9188, 39.9243) 1
(39.9188, 39.9243) (39.9188, 39.9215) (39.9215, 39.9243) 1

经度也用同样的算法,对(-180, 180)依次细分,得到116.3906的编码为1101 0010 1100 0100 0100。

经度范围 划分区间0 划分区间1 116.3906所属区间
(-180, 180) (-180, 0.0) (0.0, 180) 1
(0.0, 180) (0.0, 90.0) (90.0, 180) 1
(90.0, 180) (90.0, 135.0) (135.0, 180) 0
(90.0, 135.0) (90.0, 112.5) (112.5, 135.0) 1
(112.5, 135.0) (112.5, 123.75) (123.75, 135.0) 0
(112.5, 123.75) (112.5, 118.125) (118.125, 123.75) 0
(112.5, 118.125) (112.5, 115.312) (115.312, 118.125) 1
(115.312, 118.125) (115.312, 116.718) (116.718, 118.125) 0
(115.312, 116.718) (115.312, 116.015) (116.015, 116.718) 1
(116.015, 116.718) (116.015, 116.367) (116.367, 116.718) 1
(116.367, 116.718) (116.367, 116.542) (116.542, 116.718) 0
(116.367, 116.542) (116.367, 116.455) (116.455, 116.542) 0
(116.367, 116.455) (116.367, 116.411) (116.411, 116.455) 0
(116.367, 116.411) (116.367, 116.389) (116.389, 116.411) 1
(116.389, 116.411) (116.389, 116.400) (116.400, 116.411) 0
(116.389, 116.400) (116.389, 116.394) (116.394, 116.400) 0

接下来将经度和纬度的编码合并,奇数位是纬度,偶数位是经度,得到编码 11100 11101 00100 01111 00000 01101 01011 00001。

最后,用0-9、b-z(去掉a, i, l, o)这32个字母进行base32编码,得到(39.92324, 116.3906)的编码为wx4g0ec1。

十进制 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
base32 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 b c d e f g
十进制 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
base32 h j k m n p q r s t u v w x y z

解码算法与编码算法相反,先进行base32解码,然后分离出经纬度,最后根据二进制编码对经纬度范围进行细分即可,这里不再赘述。

实现代码:

php版本的实现方式:http://blog.dixo.net/downloads/geohash-php-class/  我下载了一个上传的

[php]

<?php
/**
* Geohash generation class
* http://blog.dixo.net/downloads/
*
* This file copyright (C) 2008 Paul Dixon (paul@elphin.com)
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
* modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
* as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3
* of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
*/

&nbsp;

/**
* Encode and decode geohashes
*
*/
class Geohash
{
private $coding="0123456789bcdefghjkmnpqrstuvwxyz";
private $codingMap=array();

public function Geohash()
{
//build map from encoding char to 0 padded bitfield
for($i=0; $i<32; $i++)
{
$this->codingMap[substr($this->coding,$i,1)]=str_pad(decbin($i), 5, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
}

}

/**
* Decode a geohash and return an array with decimal lat,long in it
*/
public function decode($hash)
{
//decode hash into binary string
$binary="";
$hl=strlen($hash);
for($i=0; $i<$hl; $i++)
{
$binary.=$this->codingMap[substr($hash,$i,1)];
}

//split the binary into lat and log binary strings
$bl=strlen($binary);
$blat="";
$blong="";
for ($i=0; $i<$bl; $i++)
{
if ($i%2)
$blat=$blat.substr($binary,$i,1);
else
$blong=$blong.substr($binary,$i,1);

}

//now concert to decimal
$lat=$this->binDecode($blat,-90,90);
$long=$this->binDecode($blong,-180,180);

//figure out how precise the bit count makes this calculation
$latErr=$this->calcError(strlen($blat),-90,90);
$longErr=$this->calcError(strlen($blong),-180,180);

//how many decimal places should we use? There's a little art to
//this to ensure I get the same roundings as geohash.org
$latPlaces=max(1, -round(log10($latErr))) - 1;
$longPlaces=max(1, -round(log10($longErr))) - 1;

//round it
$lat=round($lat, $latPlaces);
$long=round($long, $longPlaces);

return array($lat,$long);
}
/**
* Encode a hash from given lat and long
*/
public function encode($lat,$long)
{
//how many bits does latitude need?
$plat=$this->precision($lat);
$latbits=1;
$err=45;
while($err>$plat)
{
$latbits++;
$err/=2;
}

//how many bits does longitude need?
$plong=$this->precision($long);
$longbits=1;
$err=90;
while($err>$plong)
{
$longbits++;
$err/=2;
}

//bit counts need to be equal
$bits=max($latbits,$longbits);

//as the hash create bits in groups of 5, lets not
//waste any bits - lets bulk it up to a multiple of 5
//and favour the longitude for any odd bits
$longbits=$bits;
$latbits=$bits;
$addlong=1;
while (($longbits+$latbits)%5 != 0)
{
$longbits+=$addlong;
$latbits+=!$addlong;
$addlong=!$addlong;
}

//encode each as binary string
$blat=$this->binEncode($lat,-90,90, $latbits);
$blong=$this->binEncode($long,-180,180,$longbits);

//merge lat and long together
$binary="";
$uselong=1;
while (strlen($blat)+strlen($blong))
{
if ($uselong)
{
$binary=$binary.substr($blong,0,1);
$blong=substr($blong,1);
}
else
{
$binary=$binary.substr($blat,0,1);
$blat=substr($blat,1);
}
$uselong=!$uselong;
}

//convert binary string to hash
$hash="";
for ($i=0; $i<strlen($binary); $i+=5)
{
$n=bindec(substr($binary,$i,5));
$hash=$hash.$this->coding[$n];
}

return $hash;
}

/**
* What's the maximum error for $bits bits covering a range $min to $max
*/
private function calcError($bits,$min,$max)
{
$err=($max-$min)/2;
while ($bits--)
$err/=2;
return $err;
}

/*
* returns precision of number
* precision of 42 is 0.5
* precision of 42.4 is 0.05
* precision of 42.41 is 0.005 etc
*/
private function precision($number)
{
$precision=0;
$pt=strpos($number,'.');
if ($pt!==false)
{
$precision=-(strlen($number)-$pt-1);
}

return pow(10,$precision)/2;
}

/**
* create binary encoding of number as detailed in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geohash#Example
* removing the tail recursion is left an exercise for the reader
*/
private function binEncode($number, $min, $max, $bitcount)
{
if ($bitcount==0)
return "";

#echo "$bitcount: $min $max<br>";

//this is our mid point - we will produce a bit to say
//whether $number is above or below this mid point
$mid=($min+$max)/2;
if ($number>$mid)
return "1".$this->binEncode($number, $mid, $max,$bitcount-1);
else
return "0".$this->binEncode($number, $min, $mid,$bitcount-1);
}

/**
* decodes binary encoding of number as detailed in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geohash#Example
* removing the tail recursion is left an exercise for the reader
*/
private function binDecode($binary, $min, $max)
{
$mid=($min+$max)/2;

if (strlen($binary)==0)
return $mid;

$bit=substr($binary,0,1);
$binary=substr($binary,1);

if ($bit==1)
return $this->binDecode($binary, $mid, $max);
else
return $this->binDecode($binary, $min, $mid);
}
}

&nbsp;

&nbsp;
?>

[/php]